HISTORY OF

SARATOGA COUNTY, NEW YORK.

by NATHANIEL BARTLETT SYLVESTER

1878

--------------------

HISTORY OF THE VILLAGES AND TOWNS OF SARATOGA COUNTY.

CHARLTON.

-------------------------

I. - GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION.

CHARLTON is the southwestern corner town of the county, and is of a triangular shape; Galway bounds it on the north and Ballston on the east; its southern boundary is formed by an irregular line running parallel with, and four miles distant from, the Mohawk river. The town of Glenville, Schenectady county, lies between this line and the river. It contains fifteen thousand five hundred and twenty-seven acres of improved land, and four thousand seven hundred and ten of unimproved; of this last amount two thousand eight hundred and twenty acres are woodland. The population in 1875 was one thousand five hundred and eighty-six.

In the revised statutes of the State this town is described, and its boundary lines defined, as follows: "The town of Charlton shall contain all that part of said county bounded westerly and southerly by the bounds of the county, easterly by Ballston, northerly by Milton and Galway." Charlton is entirely within the limits of Kayadrossera patent.

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II. - NATURAL FEATURES.

The surface of Charlton is undulating, with a gentle inclination toward the south. The soil is composed of a sandy, gravelly, or clayey loam, is well watered, and of excellent quality. The sandy loam predominates in the southern part, the clayey loam in the northern and western portions. In the western part of the town the limestone rock crops out in several ledges, and was formerly quarried to a large extent for burning into lime and for building stone. At present nothing is being done in that business.

The principal streams are the Aalplaats creek, running across the town in a southwesterly course, and a branch of the Mourning Kill, running eastwardly into Ballston.

The forest-trees indigenous to the soil are mostly hard wood. Maple, beech, elm, and chestnut abound, and in the southern part considerable quantities of pine and hemlock.

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III. - EARLY SETTLEMENT.

The history of the early settlements in Charlton is, in many respects, a very interesting one. The settlers, coming from different places, settled separately in neighborhoods, and these localities still bear the names given them at that time. From Stone's "Reminiscences of Saratoga and Ballston" we are led to infer that, contrary to general belief, there was a settlement made in Charlton before 1774, when the New Jersey settlers came in. He there states that Joseph Gonzalez settled in the southwestern part of the town in the year 1770. He occupied the farm on which John L. Fort now lives, and on which Wyndert Wemple settled after the Revolution. This family will be more fully noticed in another part of this work. John Consalus (his name was so written on the army rolls, and the orthography has been retained till now), after his return from his captivity in Canada, settled about a mile northwest of West Charlton. His farm is now occupied by William Consalus, one of his descendants. Mrs. E.F. Bullard, of Saratoga Springs, is a granddaughter of John Consalus.

In 1773 a number of Scotch-Irish families, who had fled or been banished from Great Britain for religious opinions held by them, became desirous of colonizing in some part of the new country, hoping to better their condition by so doing. They sent one of their number, John Cavert, to select a proper location for their new settlement. He came up the Hudson river to Albany, and from there went to Schenectady, where he struck off into the unbroken forest to the northward. After a little prospecting, he finally settled upon a portion of land near the present Ballston line as the best suited to his purposes, and stuck a willow stick he held in his hand into the ground to mark the spot. He then returned to New Jersey, and reported the success of his researches to the waiting and eager friends who welcomed his return. The following spring Thomas Sweetman - accompanied by his wife, Sarah, and four children, the youngest but two months old, and by his brother-in-law, David Maxwell - removed from Freehold, Monmouth Co., N.J., and came to Charlton (via Albany and Schenectady), arriving at their new home early in May. Sweetman bought a tract of one hundred and forty-five acres of land in the southwest corner of lot 13 of the thirteenth allotment of the Kayadrossera patent, bordering on the five-thousand-acre tract. For this he paid to "Nicholas Hoffman and David Ogden, merchants, of New York," the sum of 145. The deed, given July 2, 1774, is now in the possession of John A. Sweetman, who resides on a part of his grandfather's old homestead. It was the first deed recorded in the county clerk's office when Saratoga County was formed. The maple-tree that marked the southwest corner of this lot is still standing in the centre of the highway running east. from Charlton village. It is a tree of noble proportions, but age has begun to tell upon it, and its branches begin to show the signs of decay and death. Time, the ruthless iconoclast, has set his seal upon the venerable patriarch of the forest, who has so long and valiantly withstood the furious assaults of the storm-king, and will soon remove the lingering relic of a passage from the place that has known it so long. Thus one by one the monuments of the past go down to forgetfulness and oblivion.

Thomas Sweetman and David Maxwell married sisters, Sarah and Ursula Kerr, who were descendants of Walter Kerr, who because of his religious principles (he being a Scotch Covenanter), was perpetually banished from his native land in 1685, during the reign of Charles II. Walter Kerr settled in Monmouth Co., N.J., and was prominent among those who erected the famous Tennent church in that county. The Tennent church was the first Presbyterian church in New Jersey, and is still standing in its original form. One of its peculiarities is that it was all inclosed, - roof, sides, ends, cupola, and all with shingles. It has been preserved by successive coats of white paint, and is in good condition still. Into this church the wounded were carried at the battle of Monmouth, and here the British Colonel Monckton died. Michael Sweetman, father of Thomas, emigrated from Ireland, about the year 1700, on account of religious persecutions, and also settled in Monmouth Co., N.J.

Thomas Sweetman had a family of ten children, all of whom have passed from earth. Of his descendants bearing the same name, but one, John A. Sweetman, is now living in Charlton. His third son, Joseph, was born in New Jersey, in March, 1774, and came with his parents to Charlton when he was about two months old. He was baptized in the Tennent church, by Rev. William Tennent, after whom the church was named. Struggling manfully against the many obstacles in the way, he succeeded in acquiring a good education, and entered Union College, from which he graduated in 1797. This was the first graduating class of this since famous institution, and consisted of three persons, - Joseph Sweetman, John L. Zabriskie, and Cornelius D. Schermerhorn. After a theological course, he was licensed to preach the gospel, by Albany presbytery, in 1779, being the first licentiate of that body. He accepted a call from the "Freehold church," and was ordained and settled as pastor of that church in 1800. After nearly twenty years' service, he was compelled by ill health to relinquish his office. He continued to live in Charlton till his death, which occurred Dec. 10, 1863.

David Maxwell remained with his brother-in-law till fall, helping about the clearing of the land and building a log house and barn. He then, after purchasing two hundred and fifty acres adjoining Sweetman, on the west, returned to New Jersey after his family. He returned in the spring of 1775, and was accompanied by John Cavert, John Taylor, Joseph La Rue, James Valentine, William Chambers, John McKnight, and some others. He settled upon the two hundred and fifty acres he had bought, and became a successful farmer. A grandson, Walter Kerr Maxwell, is still living on the old homestead, which has never passed out of the hands of the family.

John Taylor took up a location just west of Maxwell. He had a family of ten children, two of whom are still living, at a very advanced age. They are Mrs. Betsey Seeley, who resides in Niagara Co., N.Y., and Mrs. Sally Holmes, of Montgomery county. John Taylor's son, John W. Taylor, attained to a considerable degree of eminence in the arena of national politics. Elected as a member of Assembly from the then town of Hadley, in 1812, at the age of twenty-eight, he served two years in that body, and was then elected as representative in Congress, which office he held for twenty years, from 1813 to 1833. He was Speaker of the House of Representatives in the 19th Congress. He died in Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 13, 1863, at the age of seventy-three years. His remains were brought to Ballston Spa, and buried there.

John Taylor lived to reach the age of eighty, and died April 26, 1829, and was buried in the church-yard of the Freehold church. On his tombstone a brief history of his life attests the purity and nobility of his character and the public appreciation of his estimable qualities. He was repeatedly called to official positions, and acquitted himself in a manner to reflect great credit upon himself and honor upon his constituents. He was appointed associate judge of the court of common pleas in 1806, and held that office many years. Of his descendants living in Charlton, William L. and Richard Taylor are his grandsons.

Next west of Taylor's farm Thomas Brown owned a tract of four hundred and forty acres. He settled there some few years later, probably about the close of the Revolution. This farm was divided among his children.

Next west of him, the original settler was a man by the name of William Clarke, who came some years later.

John McKnight settled on the next farm, north of Sweetman.

John Cavert's farm was west of McKnight's and north of Maxwell's, and the homestead is now occupied by a grandson, David L. Cavert. On his return, in the spring of 1775, he found that the willow-cane he had stuck in the ground on his former visit had taken root, and was growing into a flourishing tree. In clearing the land care was taken to preserve this, a well was dug near by, and many times in after-years he was permitted to sit beneath its grateful shade while partaking of the cool and refreshing beverage furnished by "the old oaken bucket that hung in the well." He married a daughter of Thomas Sweetman while living in New Jersey, and they had a family of three children, - William, Michael, and Mary. All are dead. Michael had two sons, David L. and John M., and William had one son, James. These three grandsons all reside in Charlton.

Next north of Cavert, William Chambers settled at about the same time.

The commissioners who surveyed and distributed the lands included in the Kayadrossera patent took two tracts of land in payment for their services and expenses. Five thousand acres in Charlton, the northern boundary of which is now defined by the highway running east and west through Charlton village, was one of these tracts. It was offered for sale at public vendue, and was bought by Dirck Lefferts, Cornelius Clopper, Isaac Low, and Benjamin Kissam. Low returned to England and Kissam died, and the title became vested in Lefferts and Clopper, from whom the early settlers received the title to their lands. The first settler on this tract, next to the Ballston line, was Joseph Van Kirk. Joseph La Rue, who first settled about a mile and a half northeast of Charlton village, in 1775, subsequently purchased and occupied a farm west of Van Kirk's and south of Taylor's. He came from Red Hook, N.J. The homestead is now occupied by a grandson, Nelson W. La Rue.

Next west of La Rue was James Bradshaw, and his farm was joined on the west by lands of Jesse Conde. Conde came from Schenectady in 1775. His grandfather was killed by the Indians at Schenectady, in 1690, and his grandmother, with other refugees, fled to Albany for shelter and safety. The perilous journey through the dense forest in the dead of winter was performed in safety, and the fugitives received the needed succor and protection. Coming from Schenectady in wagons, this hardy pioneer and his companions were obliged to cut a road through the almost impassable woods. During the Revolution a party of Tories, who had encamped near Conde's about a straw-stack, were captured by a force of American soldiers who came from Schenectady, having been informed of their whereabouts by a negro employed as forager by the loyalists. Jesse Conde, of Ballston, and Jesse A. Conde and Mrs. Parthenia Dows, of Charlton, are descendants of Jesse Conde.

John Rogers settled on Aalplaats creek, and built a sawmill there at a very early day, probably about 1778. This was the first saw-mill in the town, and one of the earliest in the county. This mill was on the site of Chondy's present mill, about one-half mile south of Charlton.

John Holmes, who was a prominent member and an elder in the Freehold church, settled on the farm now occupied by Alexander and William Pierson Crane, about three-fourths of a mile west of Charlton, in 1775. Soon after he built the first grist-mill in the town. While this mill was in process of construction the men were so busily engaged that none could be spared to go on errands. So Mrs. Ruth Holmes would take a horse with a man's saddle and a bag, ride to Schenectady, nine miles through the woods, and return after making her purchases. At one time during the Revolution a rumor was set afloat that a band of Tories and Indians were in the vicinity, with the purpose of burning the settlement and killing the settlers. Mr. Holmes removed his family to the woods, where a shelter was made by hanging blankets over the trunk of a fallen tree, and in this novel bivouac the women and children spent one day and night, while the men remained to watch and to defend the buildings. The alarm was happily a false one, and soon the declaration of peace forever set at rest the fears of the settlers. Two of John Holmes' grandchildren, Isaac A. Smith and Mrs. Harriet E. Crothers, reside in Charlton.

Nathaniel and Margaret Cook, with their family of eight sons and one daughter, moved from their home in northern New Jersey, May 18, 1778, and one month after, as their record reads, they "got into ougher new house." They settled in the eastern part of the town. On another page we find the quaint record of their first seed-time, which reads, "Now sode wheat, Aug. 12, 1778;" and again, Sept. 5, 1778. Asher, the oldest son, was married before coming north, and bought one hundred acres about two miles north of Charlton, on which farm David W. Cook, one of his grandchildren, now lives. Several other great-grandchildren of Nathaniel Cook are living in the town.

The Scotch Street settlement was commenced about the time that Thomas Sweetman settled in the Freehold settlement. A number of Scotch families from the parish of Whithorn, in the shire of Galloway, in Scotland, embarked, early in the year 1774, in a ship bound for America. Arriving in New York, they immediately started for the new country opening up along the Mohawk river. Arriving in Schenectady, they packed their effects on horses and started for their destination via Glenville, cutting their way through the woods. These settlers located mostly in the town of Galway, but were afterwards followed by others, in 1775, who settled south of the north line of Charlton. Among these were James Bell, Mr. McWilliams, Andrew Bell, William Gilchrist, and Robert McKinney. Some of the Scotch Street settlers (all of whom left their homes during the Revolution, and sought safety at Schenectady or Albany) did not return after the Revolution. But these families retained their lands, and they have passed down from generation to generation till the present. After the close of the war several other families moved into the western part of the town. Among them were John Van Patten, Tunis Swart, Aaron Schermerhorn, Abram Van Epps, and Alexander Gilchrist. Representatives of nearly all of these families are now living in the town, and generally on the lands owned by their forefathers. John Anderson, who was one of the soldiers of Burgoyne's army, and included among the prisoners surrendered at Saratoga, Oct. 17, 1777, and Hezekiah Watkins, a Revolutionary soldier in the patriot army, also settled near West Charlton.

Abraham Northrup settled about a mile south of Charlton village, in 1785. He bought two hundred acres of land, designated as lot 12 of the five-thousand-acre tract, of Dirck Lefferts and Cornelius Clopper, for 250 in specie. A maple-tree which was used to mark the northwest corner of the lot is still standing. One hundred acres, on which the homestead was located, is now occupied by Hiram Morehouse, who received it from his father, Abillia Morehouse; so that it has been in the possession of the family for upwards of ninety-two years.

Phnix Cox settled north of Charlton, near the town line, in 1786. He was a militiaman in New Jersey in 1776, but not in active service. He had a family of three children, who came with him. Asher, the only son who lived to maturity, succeeded his father on the farm, and in turn left it to his son, Aretas M. Cox, who now owns and occupies it.

Zopher Wicks settled two miles north of Charlton, and his farm of one hundred acres was described in the deed as "subdivision 10 of lot 1, of great lot 2, of the thirteenth allotment of the Kayadrossera patent." He had two sons, Zopher, Jr., and David. Zopher, Jr., left the farm and moved into Charlton, and started the first blacksmith-shop there. David lived on the homestead, and when he died left it in possession of his son, Thomas, who with his son, Charles T., are the present owners and tillers of the ancestral acres.

Isaac Smith, of Lenox, Mass., settled near the south line of Charlton, near Holmes' farm. The farm he purchased is now owned by Mr. Hedden. Several descendants of Isaac Smith are living in town. Isaac A., David A., Harriet, and Edward T. Smith, of his children, are still living.

Gideon Hawley, of Connecticut, settled in Charlton long before the close of the last century. His son, Gideon, was appointed as the first superintendent of common schools of the State of New York, in 1813. He was a graduate of Union College, and a lawyer by profession. He showed great adaptability for the responsible duties of the office to which he was called, and an earnest, almost enthusiastic interest in the cause of education. He removed to Albany, and continued to reside there till his death. He held the office of superintendent till Feb. 24, 1821, when the office was abolished and its duties devolved upon the Secretary of State. Deputy Superintendent S.S. Randall, in his "Digest of the Common-School System," published in 1844, pays this deserved tribute to Mr. Hawley's worth and efficiency: "To no individual in the State are the friends of common-school education more deeply indebted for the impetus given to the cause of elementary instruction in its infancy than to Gideon Hawley. At a period when everything depended upon organization, upon supervision, upon practical acquaintance with the most minute details, and upon a patient, persevering, laborious process of exposition, Mr. Hawley united in himself all the requisites for the efficient discharge of the high functions devolved upon him by the Legislature. From a state of anarchy and confusion, and complete disorganization, within a period of less than eight years arose a beautiful and stately fabric, based upon the most impregnable foundations, sustained by an enlightened public sentiment, fortified by the best and most enduring affections of the people, and cherished as the safeguard of the State, the true palladium of its greatness and prosperity. The foundations of a permanent and noble system of popular education were strongly and securely laid by him, and we are now witnessing the magnificent superstructure which, in the progress of a quarter of a century, has been gradually upbuilt on these foundations." Mr. Hawley lived to see the fruit of his labors in the present admirable free-school system, and died in Albany. Another son, Roswell Hawley, is still living in Charlton.

In the year 1794 two Scotch families came from their homes among the Scottish hills, and settled about a quarter of a mile east of West Charlton, on adjoining farms. There was a singular coincidence in the names of the heads of these families. They were respectively Robert and Alison Bunyan and Robert and Alison Hume. Both families bore the names of distinguished men, but did not claim any kinship with them. To unite the two families still more strongly, William, the eldest son of the Bunyan family, married Isabel Hume. They lived on the Bunyan homestead till their deaths. Robert Bunyan was a prominent member of the Freehold church, and going to church one Sabbath when the going was bad, he caught cold sitting in the unwarmed church, and died of inflammation of the lungs in 1799. William Bunyan died in 1837. Robert Hume lived to the great age of one hundred and one years, and died in 1839. John and William Bunyan and Mrs. Margaret Alexander are grandchildren of Robert Bunyan and Robert Hume, still living in Charlton. John Bunyan lives on the homestead. Other grandchildren moved to the State of Ohio many years ago, and some are still living there.

James Low was an early settler near the centre of the town, and the Low family have been quite prominent in public affairs. John Low was for many years supervisor of the town, and Thomas Low officiated as county sheriff. The first white grave-stone erected in the town was to mark the grave of Mrs. Abigail Low, who died April 11, 1797, and was buried in the church-yard. James Low died in 1827, at the age of seventy-nine.

Two brothers named Chauncey and Samuel Belding came to Charlton, - the first arriving in the town about 1790 and the other two or three years later, - and embarked in the mercantile business in 1794. They succeeded Davis & Bostwick, who started the first store in Charlton, about 1785-87, and who failed in business about the time that Chauncey Belding came to Charlton The Beldings were quite prominent men. Chauncey was a member of Assembly in 1807-8, and Samuel held the same office in 1823.

Captain Kenneth Gordon was a minute-man in the Revolution. During the war he came to Charlton, and settled on the farm now occupied by John S. De Ridder. His title was attained in the militia. His son Joseph, the youngest of six children, is now living in Ballston Spa, at the age of eighty.

Other early settlers in the town were John Angle, Nicholas Angle, Amos Sherwood, Aaron Schermerhorn, Mr. Stevens, Mr. Chapman, James Valentine, Samuel Parent, Ahasuerus Wendell, Mr. Arrowsmith, Jeremiah Smith, Jacob Deremer, John Hays, Dr. Wm. Mead, the first physician in town, Henry Corl, Eli Northrup, James Taylor, and Nathan Hinman.

The Kirby homestead deserves mention in this work, as being one of the oldest and most noted places in the town. It is the property of Colonel Frank D. Curtis. It was settled and cleared up by Seth Kirby, in 1785. The Kirbys are descended from two brothers who were obliged to flee from England on the downfall of Oliver Cromwell, whose adherents and supporters they were. They were part of the council which condemned Charles the First to death. Major Thomas Kirby, son of Seth Kirby, served as ensign in the War of 1812, for which he was a volunteer. Colonel Curtis married his second daughter, Elizabeth. His only son, John F. Kirby, is a lawyer, and resides at South Bend, Indiana. An Indian family lived on the Kirby place when it was first settled, and continued to live there afterwards till they all died, and were buried near their mansion.

The first frame house erected in Charlton is yet standing on the homestead, being used for a barn. The frame, of black ash, is as sound as when first erected. Four huge locust-trees, which were set out in the year 1803, are still standing in the yard. The Dows homestead is situated on the same street, and was settled by Eleazer Dows at the same time. Mr. Dows raised a large family. David Dows, a prominent merchant in New York city, is the youngest son. Mr. Ammi Dows, {original text has "Down".} for many years a merchant in New York city, retired to the old homestead, where he died in 1875.

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IV. - ORGANIZATION.

The town of Charlton was erected from the town of Ballston, March 17, 1792. It was named in honor of a distinguished New York physician, Dr. Charlton. Previously it had been called "Freehold," or "New Freehold," by the settlers, who were mostly emigrants from Freehold, N.J., and who desired to perpetuate the name of their former home by conferring it on this settlement in the wilderness.

Like many other towns, Charlton has failed to keep its records in a proper shape to be valuable for reference. The books of record of town-meetings previous to 1858 have been lost or destroyed, and a large amount of interesting historical material is thus placed beyond the reach of those who should be much interested in its preservation. The migratory character usually attached to the town clerk's office is a blot upon our reputation for wisdom and common sense. Under it, it is impossible to keep the records in proper shape and preserve them for future use and reference.

The first supervisor of the town was John Boyd, Jr., who served but one year. The first town clerk of whom we have any record was Alexander Ferguson: who was serving in 1799 and continued in office till, in 1802, he was succeeded by Samuel Belding. Mr. Belding served eleven consecutive years, and, again re-elected in 1818, served twenty-one years, making in all an official life, as town clerk, of thirty-two years.

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LIST OF TOWN OFFICERS.

{The record of collectors from 1792 to 1828 has been lost.}

 

Supervisor.

Town Clerk.

Collector.

1792.

John Boyd, Jr.

 

 

1793.

Alex. Gilchrist.

 

 

1794.

John Taylor.

 

 

1795.

John Munro.

 

 

1796.

Alex. Gilchrist.

 

 

1797.

Henry Carl, Jr.

 

 

1798.

John Taylor.

 

 

1799.

Alex. Gilchrist.

Alex. Ferguson.

 

1800.

Chauncey Belding.

"

 

1801.

"

"

 

1802.

Caleb Holmes.

Samuel Belding.

 

1803.

Nathan Hinman.

"

 

1804.

John Anderson.

"

 

1805.

Caleb Holmes.

"

 

1806.

Joseph Brown.

"

 

1807.

John Rogers, Jr.

"

 

1808.

Joseph Brown.

"

 

1809.

Somers Hiller.

"

 

1810.

"

"

 

1811.

"

"

 

1812.

Daniel Ostrom.

"

 

1813.

Samuel Belding.

N.S. Hollister.

 

1814.

John Low.

"

 

1815.

"

"

 

1816.

"

N.D. Conde.

 

1817.

"

"

 

1818.

"

Samuel Belding.

 

1819.

"

"

 

1820.

Alvin Isbell.

"

 

1821.

John Low.

"

 

1822.

"

"

 

1823.

"

"

 

1824.

"

"

 

1825.

"

"

 

1826.

"

"

 

1827.

"

"

 

1828.

"

"

 

1829.

"

"

John Callaghan.

1830.

"

"

John A. Parent.

1831.

"

"

Jonas Crane.

1832.

"

"

"

1833.

Daniel Ostrom.

"

Jesse Conde.

1834.

"

"

"

1835.

"

"

Jonas Crane.

1836.

"

"

 

1837.

Thomas Brown.

"

 

1838.

"

"

Garrett S. Cavert.

1839.

Archibald Smith.

Hiram Belding.

David Putnam.

1840.

Lawrence Gardiner.

"

Garrett S. Cavert.

1841.

"

"

Francis H. Skinner.

1842.

"

Henry M. Hulst.

"

1843.

"

James Richey.

William L. Taylor.

1844.

John A. Gilchrist.

"

Colin F. Brown.

1845.

Lawrence Gardiner.

"

Alex. F. Alexander.

1846.

Alex. Gilchrist.

"

Colin F. Brown.

1847.

Henry Ostrom.

"

Alex. F. Alexander.

1848.

James Richey.

M.B. Callaghan

Cornelius Groot.

1849.

"

"

Pierson Crane.

1850.

John A. Sweetman.

James Richey.

Benj. H. Knapp.

1851.

John Low.

James H. Marvin.

"

1852.

John A. Sweetman.

"

John Consalus.

1853.

James N. Budd.

"

"

1854.

"

William H. Ely.

John Batt.

1855.

Nathan H. Brown.

"

Isaac Raymond.

1856.

"

Hiram Belding.

N.H. Sherman.

1857.

"

"

"

1858.

"

"

John A. Chambers.

1859.

John Consalus.

"

Alfred H. Hayes.

1860.

"

"

L. Thomp'n Heaton.

1861.

Horace S. Brown.

"

Jos. H. Alexander.

1862.

"

"

Frank Morehouse.

1863.

"

William H. Ely.

John M. Gilchrist.

1864.

"

"

David Millard.

1865.

"

"

L. Thomp'n Heaton.

1866.

"

Hiram Belding.

Richard Pearse.

1867.

George Bell.

"

And. Y. Van Vorst.

1868.

Frederick Curtis.

Norman Smith.

John Davidson, Jr.

1869.

"

"

Wm. M. Teller.

1870.

"

"

Rufus Youngs.

1871.

James N. Budd.

"

James W. Sherman.

1872.

"

"

Joel A. McCouchie.

1873.

Benj. H. Knapp.

"

Vrooman DeGraff.

1874.

"

"

George C. Valentine.

1875.

Wm. B. Consalus.

"

Jonas Sanders.

1876.

John A. Sweetman.

"

John T. Cavert.

1877.

"

George Chondy.

Chas. B. Alexander.

1878.

Peter Van Guysling.

David F. Wicks.

Humphrey Young.

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JUSTICES OF THE PEACE ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE.

1831.

Record lost.

1855.

Robert Crothers.

1832.

"

1856.

Henry Ostrom.

1833.

"

1857.

Alexander Davidson.

1834.

"

1858.

Isaac Raymond.

1835.

"

1859.

Robert Crothers.

1836.

"

1860.

Robert Hallowell.

1837.

"

1861.

Alexander Davidson.

1838.

"

1862.

Alfred H. Hayes.

1839.

"

1863.

James C. Bell.

1840.

"

1864.

Elbert A. Wilkie

1841.

"

1865.

Alexander Davidson.

1842.

"

1866.

Jesse Conde.

1843.

"

1867.

James C. Bell.

1844.

"

1868.

Elbert A. Wilkie.

1845.

"

1869.

Benjamin H. Knapp.

1846.

"

1870.

William H. Coons.

1847.

"

1871.

Samson T. Mason.

1848.

"

1872.

Elbert A. Wilkie.

1849.

"

1873.

Cornell M. Noxon.

1850.

"

1874.

William H. Coons.

1851.

"

1875.

Joseph H. Alexander.

John A. Chambers.

1852.

"

1876.

Elbert A. Wilkie.

1853.

"

1877.

Cornell M. Noxon.

1854.

Marvin E. Myers.

1878.

John A. Chambers.

 

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V. - VILLAGES.

CHARLTON VILLAGE is about three miles southwest of the northeast corner of the town. It contains about forty dwelling-houses. The Charlton Academy is located there, and two stores, two hotels, several mechanics' shops, and three churches together make up one of the pleasantest country villages in the county. It is situated in a fine farming region. Well-cultivated farms surround it on every side, showing the thrift and industry of the inhabitants.

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LITTLE TROY. - About the years 1820 to 1830 quite a promising business place was started at the corners, a mile and a half southeast of Charlton. It was called Little Troy, and boasted of a blacksmith-shop, a fulling-mill, and carding-machine, a grist-mill, a saw-mill, a store, a tavern, and three distilleries. Of these several institutions not one is left to tell the tale, and the hopes that clustered so fondly around the prospective future of "Little Troy" have been untimely blasted by the cold winds of adversity.

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WEST CHARLTON is a small village four miles northwest from Charlton. There are about twenty dwellings, a blacksmith- and wagon-shop, one church, and the district school-house. All parts of the town are too near Schenectady to permit the growth of any large villages for trade and general business, and the water-power of the town is not sufficient to develop any.

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BLUE CORNERS is a hamlet near the line of Montgomery county. It has the school-house of district No. 1, and an Episcopal church.

VI. - SCHOOLS.

Regarding the early schools but little is known. From a letter of Rev. Joseph Sweetman to a friend, in which he commented upon the difficulties of the situation of the pioneers, we take the following reference made to the "schools.' He says, "The first five years passed without a school in the place. And afterwards, through several years, nothing more was attempted than to maintain a common school three months in the winter season in some little log house, under the supervision of one illy qualified to teach, and the instruction was confined to reading, writing, and arithmetic."

The Charlton Academy was started as a private school by Rev. James N. Crocker about the year 1858. It was then kept in the session-room of the Freehold church, and was placed under the care of the presbytery of Albany, who appointed a board of trustees and a board of examiners to look after the interests of the school. The present school building was built with money obtained through a subscription-list, and was erected about the year 1860 and placed in the hands of the trustees appointed by the presbytery. Rev. Mr. Crocker remained as principal till 1867. He was followed by Mr. L.S. Packard, who remained two years; Mr. ------ Dodge, who remained one year; Mr. ------ Kingsbury, who remained four years; Rev. John R. Sansom, who remained one year; and in the fall of 1875 the present principal, Professor J.E. Weld, took charge of the school. The school curriculum embraces all the studies usually taught in the academies or preparatory schools. The school was successful under the management of Mr. Crocker, but the frequent changes of teachers had detracted from its success until Mr. Weld assumed control, since which time it has improved. The attendance averages about forty scholars.

A "Teachers' Association" was formed in Charlton in 1836, which is believed to have been the first organization of the kind in the State. Its object was "mutual improvement." It was formed January 5, with Augustus P. Smith, Jonathan Canfield, David H. Crittenden, Michael P. Cavert, Isaac Stackpole, William N. Angle, Henry Choudy, Newton M. Curtis, and James Underhill as members. A.P. Smith was the first president, and M.P. Cavert the first secretary of the association. Of these Cavert and Crittenden graduated at Union College afterwards, and entered upon the teacher's profession. Curtis died at an early age, but not before he had obtained quite a reputation as a novelist of no mean power. His "Bride of the Northern Wilds" and "Black-plumed Riflemen" won for him many encomiums from a large circle of readers. The association met once in two weeks, and their discussions were confined to questions pertaining to schools and teaching.

 

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COMMISSIONERS' APPORTIONMENT FOR 1878.

District

Number of Children between five and twenty-one.

Equal Quota of the Public Money.

Public Money according to the number of Children.

Public Money according to average attendance.

Library Money.

Total Public Money.

No. 1

38

$52.14

$26.14

$26.11

$1.27

$105.66

" 2

55

52.14

37.83

25.37

1.83

117.17

" 3

39

52.14

26.82

22.82

1.30

103.08

" 4

50

52.14

34.39

47.04

1.67

135.24

" 5

44

52.14

30.26

29.24

1.47

113.11

" 6

40

52.14

27.51

40.13

1.33

121.11

" 7

41

52.14

28.20

47.96

1.37

129.67

" 8

77

52.14

52.96

51.67

2.57

159.34

" 9

62

52.14

42.64

39.20

2.07

136.05

 

446

$469.26

$306.75

$329.54

$14.88

$1120.43

 

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VII. - CHURCHES.

ST. PAUL'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH.

On the 10th day of December, A.D. 1803, a meeting of the members of the Episcopal church was held, for the purpose of organizing a society of that denomination in Charlton. James Sherwood was elected chairman of the meeting, and Eleazer Dows and Joseph Van Kirk were secretaries. At that meeting a society was formed in accordance with the existing laws, and incorporated. Among the first members were Elind Davis, Eleazer Dows, Jonathan R. Spencer, William Lendrum, Robert Benedict, Jr., Thomas Dows, Frederick Valentine, Ezra Benedict, Joseph Van Kirk, David Hubbell, Jesse Dows, John Hays, Peter Hays, Isaac Valentine, Ezekiel Horton, Amos Sherwood, Samuel Hays, William Ely, James Valentine, Joseph La Rue, and James Richey.

The minutes of the first meeting were properly recorded in the county clerk's office, and the organization and incorporation thus completed.

The first officers were elected at this meeting, and were as follows, viz.: Wardens, Jeremiah Smith and James Sherwood; Vestrymen, Robert Benedict, James Bradley, John Lendrum, Eleazer Dows, Elind Davis, Matthew La Rue, Joseph Van Kirk, and Patrick Callahan.

Soon afterwards - March 17, 1804 - a church-lot containing thirty square rods of ground was purchased of Joseph Brown, who "granted, bargained, sold, delivered, remised, released, conveyed, assured, enfeoffed, and confirmed" it to them for the sum of $50, which amount, considering the binding and irrevocable character of the transaction, was not at all exorbitant.

On this lot a church building was erected in 1804. The work was done by contract, by Eleazer Dows, who received the sum of $1200 to build a chapel thirty feet wide by forty, two feet long. In the year 1836 this building was repaired, and alterations were made in the chancel and the arrangement of the pews. With these changes the building is still standing, having been used for purposes of public worship for seventy-three years.

On the 14th of November, 1804, about the time of the completion of the church, a glebe lot of about one hundred acres was purchased of Chauncey Belding, at a cost of $1100. This was rented to various persons, and finally sold about 1840.

The church property is valued at $6000, and the glebe fund now amounts to about $800.

The first rector was Rev. Frederick Van Horn, who was canonically inducted into office, August 9, 1805, by Rev. Mr. Butler, who preached a discourse suited to the occasion, and Rev. Mr. Stebbings, of Schenectady, read prayers. His salary was 60 per year. The rectors in charge since that time have been Rev. David Huntington, 1812; Rev. James Bowers, 1817; Rev. Amos G. Baldwin, 1825; Rev. Edward Davis, 1827; Rev. Theodore Babcock, 1849; Rev. Nicholas J. Seeley, 1853; Rev. John H. Betts. 1857; Rev. Elias Weil, 1869; Rev. James H. Tyng, 1870; Rev. Francis C. Wainwright, 1870; Rev. Reginald H. Barnes, 1871. Mr. Barnes resigned the rectorship of this church in March, 1877, since which time the pulpit has been vacant.

Since 1857 the church has been connected with the society of Calvary church, Burnt Hills: one rector having charge of both churches.

Miss Elizabeth M. Callaghan, who died December 25, 1853, bequeathed $63 to the church, of which she was a devout member.

The first baptism after the church was organized was that of William Ferris Benedict, June 7, 1805.

The first marriage recorded was celebrated by Rev. Frederick Van Horn, Feb. 13, 1805, between Benjamin Watson and Mary Lendrum.

The first death recorded was that of Lucy Dows, aged eleven years, who died Feb. 4, 1806.

The present vestry is composed as follows, viz.: Matthew L.R. Valentine, Robert O. Davis, wardens; Robert J. Wandell, John Hays, Joseph R. Valentine, William O. Smith, William L. Taylor, Joseph L.R. Valentine, vestrymen; William Taylor, clerk; William T. Birdsall, collector and treasurer.

There has been a Sunday-school connected with the church for about thirty-five or forty years, usually well attended. At present the average attendance is from twenty-five to thirty. The school has a library of about three hundred volumes. William T. Birdsall is superintendent.

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THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF FREEHOLD, IN CHARLTON.

The early settlers of the eastern pert of the town of Charlton were mostly from the town of Freehold, in Monmouth county, New Jersey, and intended to name their new homes in the wilderness after their former homes near the sea. Consequently, as the town of Charlton was not erected till 1792, and the church was organized in 1786, the name of "The Freehold church" obtained, and has never been dropped.

The history of the church is an interesting one, and shows the guiding hand of God throughout every period of its existence. Never having been subject to the ups and downs, the vicissitudes and changes, that mark the history of some churches, it has steadily maintained a healthy state of growth and prosperity, and wielded a healthful influence in the community.

January 3, 1786, a meeting was held and the church, incorporated according to the laws of the State, was organized, and placed itself under the jurisdiction of the presbytery of New York. No record of this meeting, or of the members who formed the society, is now extant.

A small frame church, seated with benches, was built in the summer of 1786, on a church-lot, purchased of a man named Clark. The lot contained one acre, and subsequently a half-acre was purchased, on which sheds were erected. This church was used till 1802, when a larger and more commodious church was built. This one then served the congregation for a place of worship till the summer of 1853, when the present church was erected, at a cost of about $4500. It is still in good condition, and with careful usage will still serve many years as a temple of the Most High God. It is forty feet wide by sixty feet long, and will comfortably seat three hundred persons. In the church-yard lot, in imitation of the customs of their fathers, the pioneers interred the remains of those of their number who passed from life through death to immortality. There are a few graves on the northeast corner of the church still to be seen. The stones marking the resting-places of the dead are of brown-stone and marble. The earliest burial was that of Jesse Conde, aged nine years, a son of Jesse and Parthenia Conde, who died July 2, 1787. In this yard are buried John Holmes, John Taylor, and James Low, who were among the earliest settlers of the town.

The church property is now valued at $5000.

About 1854 the society purchased a parsonage adjoining the church, at a cost of $1000.

Soon after the erection of the first meeting-house, Rev. William Schenck, pastor of a church at Ballston, was engaged to preach here one-third of the time, as a stated supply. This arrangement continued until Aug. 7, 1789. From that time for nearly four years the pulpit was supplied by presbytery. Then, June 21, 1793, the first pastor of the church, Rev. Samuel Sturges, was installed in office. This pastorate terminated April 17, 1797. The pulpit was then supplied by presbytery till Sept. 17, 1800, when Rev. Joseph Sweetman, elsewhere mentioned, accepted a call and became pastor. For seventeen years he continued to serve in this capacity with rare success. The perfect harmony that existed between him and his people was marked to a high degree, and had a powerful influence on the community. At the commencement of his ministry the church numbered about sixty members, and at the close of his labors the number had increased to two hundred and twenty. Oct. 8, 1817, he was forced to resign his pastoral duties by failing health. Since that time the church has been served by the following pastors in the order given, viz.: Rev. Isaac Watts Platt, from July 11, 1820, to Feb. 20, 1825; Rev. John Clancy, from Aug. 31, 1825, to May 21, 1845; Rev. Richard H. Steele, from Feb. 16, 1848, to May 13, 1850; Rev. George I. Taylor, from Feb. 1, 1853, to June, 1854; Rev. James N. Crocker, from July 11, 1855, to Aug. 11, 1867; Rev. John R. Sanson, from Oct., 1869, to Sept. 6, 1875; Rev. Clarence W. Backus, since October, 1876.

The first baptism recorded is that of Roswell Holmes, in 1801. The first marriage was performed by Rev. Joseph Sweetman, February 24, 1801. The contracting parties were John Keachie and Isabel McKinley. The first officers of the church were elected April 26, 1787. They were, Deacons, Thomas Brown and Eli Northrup; and Elders, John Holmes, John Rogers, and Joel Smith. No other deacons were ever chosen. The following persons have subsequently been elected and ordained ruling elders, viz.: John Tappan, William Clark, Thaddeus Northrup, John Holmes, Jr., James Taylor, Elisha Jenne, Samuel Baldwin, Otis Bartlett, John Chamberlain, John Brown, David Wicks, Roswell Hawley, William Taylor, Isaac Wilkinson, Joseph Brown, Timothy Capen, John Cook, Seth Kirby, John McKnight, John W. Cavert, John B. Packer, Thomas Kirby, Amos Hewitt, Sherman Sanders, John M. Cavert, John A. Sweetman, John Holmes, David A. Smith, Thomas Wicks, Isaac O. Groot, Thomas H. Cunningham,, and Charles T. Wicks. The five last named constitute the present session. John Holmes, one of the first elders, has been followed in the eldership by a son and a grandson, each bearing the same name. The present membership of the church is about one hundred and fifty. The board of trustees is composed of Thomas H. Cunningham, Alexander Crane, David F. Wicks, Hiram Morehouse, William Deremer, Charles T. Wicks, Martin H. Smith, and Isaac C. Groot. Alexander Crane is clerk of the board, and Charles T. Wicks is clerk of sessions.

A Sabbath-school was first started in connection with this church about 1825. It was more fully organized, and has been regularly maintained since about 1856. John B. Packer was the superintendent at that time. About five or six years ago the practice of keeping up the school throughout the year was introduced, with good results. The school numbers about one hundred and fifty scholars. Charles T. Wicks is the present superintendent. The library contains about two hundred and fifty volumes.

Among the first members of the church were Mary Weed, Joseph Johnson, Nathaniel Bartlett, Otis Bartlett, Caleb Stevens, Wilson Northrup, Caleb Holmes, Henry Enearl, Samuel Baldwin, Asa Beach, Thaddeus Northrup, Bostwick Brown, Joseph, William, and John Brown, Elijah Knapp, Ezekiel Hoyt, Eliah Skinner, whose names are not elsewhere mentioned. Want of space alone prevents giving a full list of the names attached to the roll.

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THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF WEST CHARLTON.

This church is more generally known as the "Old Scotch Church," or the "Scotch Street Church," from the fact that its founders were all natives of Scotland, and called the road running north and south through their settlement Scotch street.

From the time of their first settlement in 1774 till they were forced to leave their homes and flee to Schenectady from fear of the Tories and Indians in 1777, regular weekly meetings were held from house to house on each recurring Sabbath. After the danger was passed, and confidence and safety restored and assured by the successful close of the Burgoyne campaign, but few of these people returned, and it was not until several years later that the society was fully organized. Additions to the settlement were made rapidly after the close of the Revolution, and a church was organized. The preaching previous to 1794 was by occasional supplies from different points. Among them were Rev. Mr. Miller, of Schenectady, who was the first preacher in this vicinity; Rev. Messrs. Dobbin, Occum, Logan, Colison, and Proudfit, from Salem, Washington county; Rev. Mr. Donaldson, of Albany; Rev. Mr. Dunham, and Dr. Thomas Clark.

In 1794 the church, having built a house of worship, gave a call to Rev. James Mairs, who, having been educated for the ministry in Ireland and Scotland, emigrated with his brother in May, 1793, and reached Salem, Washington county, in August of that year. Having accepted the call, he was installed as the first pastor of the church Feb. 20, 1794. The relation thus assumed was maintained intact and unbroken until May 20, 1835, a period of forty-one years and three months. At this time he was nearly seventy years of age, and a fire which destroyed his home and burned up his library he accepted as a Providential intimation that his day of active labor was passed and the evening of his life drawing near. He had seen the progress and growth of the church from a weak and small organization to a large and strong society, had seen the fathers of the church pass away, and another generation grow gray in the service of the Master, and had seen, as the fruits of his ministrations, six hundred and thirty-one different persons admitted to the church. After the close of his pastorate, Mr. Mairs removed to the vicinity of New York, and continued to preach in various places, as opportunity offered, till his death, which occurred Sept. 18, 1840. Mr. Mail, was educated for the medical profession, and, though never practicing medicine, his neighbors and parishioners often availed themselves of his skill, and were relieved from their pains and cured of their diseases by his remedies.

He was succeeded, Nov. 15, 1837, by Rev. Andrew Johnson, who remained till May 16, 1855, a period of seventeen and one-half years. In 1844 he was granted a leave of absence to take a trip to Europe for his health, and returned in May, 1845, so changed in appearance that his congregation did not recognize him until they heard his voice in the pulpit. During his pastorate an incident occurred illustrative of the church-going habit of the people. A Sabbath of unusual severity and very stormy occurred, and the dominie thought that it was so very unpleasant and inclement that no one would venture out to church. But, while he sat at home, slowly, one by one, and two by two, the members congregated at the church, and finally, tired of waiting, dispatched a committee to notify the pastor of their presence. Taken by surprise, he hastily prepared himself and repaired to the church. Selecting for his text the words, "Go ye and learn what that meaneth. I will have mercy, and not sacrifice," he preached a powerful and eloquent extemporaneous discourse.

Following him came Rev. Addison Henry, a young man of twenty-four, a graduate of Jefferson College, who was pastor of the church at the time of his death, some five years afterwards. He was installed as pastor Nov. 3, 1858. For many months before his death he preached regularly even after he was unable to stand upright, and had to lean upon the desk for support. A very short time before his death he preached a farewell sermon, sitting in his chair and reading from the manuscript. His text was 2d Corinthians, 13th chapter, 11th verse.

It was a very affecting scene. He was taken worse immediately, and died at the house of his father-in-law, Robert Orr, in Galway, on Sabbath morning, Dec. 6, 1863. His funeral was held on the following Thursday, and Rev. J.L. Clark preached the funeral sermon.

May 4, 1864, Rev. W.N. Randles was installed as pastor, and served till the spring of 1872. During his ministry a religious convention was held under the auspices of the presbytery of Albany. Daily meetings were held for eight successive weeks. In the spring of 1866, as a result of these meetings, forty-four persons were added to the church.

The present pastor, Rev. William M. Gibson, entered into pastoral relations with this church Oct. 30, 1873. Last year he prepared a centennial sermon upon the history of this church, and produced a work of great interest, and involving much labor and research. This he kindly placed at our disposal, and we have availed ourselves of the privilege and drawn largely from it in preparing this brief history. The first sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered on Oct. 5, 1794. There were then thirty members of this church. At that time the first officers were chosen. They were, Elders, John McClelland, John Major, and John Anderson. Subsequently, the following persons were elected and ordained as elders of the church, viz., John Low, John Alexander, William Gilchrist, George Ramsey, Peter Anderson, Thomas Alexander, James Bell, William Bunyan, John Low, Daniel Ostrom, Peter Major, Hanse Boggs, J.L. Smith, William S. Smeallie, Robert Orr, Alexander Gilchrist, Henry Ostrom, Alexander F. Alexander, and George Bell The five last named form the present session. George Bell is clerk of the session.

This church has sent four young men into the world as ministers of the gospel. They are Revs. Ebenezer Maxwell, John Major, Thomas Kirkwood; and George Alexander. The present membership is one hundred and seventy-five.

The first meeting-house was built before 1794, and stood on the southeast corner of John McKindley's farm, adjoining the town line of Galway and Charlton. It was in the town of Galway. This was a frame building, was never lathed and plastered or artificially warmed, and yet here in the coldest weather of our rigorous winters the people assembled and listened to the dispensing of the Word of Life. In 1803 a new and larger house was built "on the southwest corner of James Bell's lot of land in Charlton," which now forms part of the West Charlton cemetery. The new church was forty-two feet in width by fifty-six in length, and was built under contract by William Bunyan and Robert Brown. It was finished off in 1804, and in 1811 the modern luxury of stoves was introduced. In order to equalize the temperature, these stoves were elevated on platforms some three feet above the floor. The church was repaired some years later, and the height of the pulpit floor, above the floor of the house, was reduced to five and one-half feet.

In the summer of 1846 the present church was built. It stands on the west side of the road, a short distance south of the second site. It is a fine-looking building, and occupies a beautiful and sightly location. The interior of the church is very finely finished, and the walls and ceiling are beautifully frescoed. From a vestibule twelve feet wide across the front two flights of stairs lead to the gallery above, and two doors open into two aisles running the length of the church. The pews are sixty-six in number, and with the gallery will comfortably seat from three hundred and fifty to four hundred people. The reading-desk, or pulpit, is massively built and heavily moulded, and presents a fine appearance. In 1876 about $3000 was expended in repairs, and the church, which is certainly one of the finest country churches in the county, is valued at $7000.

A glebe lot of one hundred acres was purchased in 1794. It lay in the town of Galway, about two miles north of the present church. It was sold to Rev. James Mairs in 1820, a special enabling act being passed by the Legislature for that purpose. In 1837 the present parsonage lot of eleven acres was purchased of George Mead for $385, and a parsonage was erected thereon, which is still in use.

For many years Sabbath-schools were maintained in the different school districts, and in 1864 these were all merged in a Congregational school at the church. From that time it has been maintained in connection with the church, and with an average attendance of about one hundred members. Henry Ostrom is the present superintendent. Instead of a library, Sunday-school papers are largely distributed among the scholars.

The cemetery is a model of neatness, and notable both for its pleasant location and the number of fine monuments that adorn it. The first burial was that of Esther Neilson Gilchrist, who died Dec. 8, 1778.

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THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, CHARLTON,

was organized about forty years ago; Sabbath-school for the past twenty-five years; the average attendance about fifty. The present superintendent is the pastor, Rev. D.T. Elliott. The library contains three hundred and fifty volumes. The church is a plain building without a tower, and will afford comfortable sittings for two hundred and fifty people. The parsonage attached is valued at $1000, and is owned by the Charlton circuit. The present officers of the church are W.F. Haywood, J.H. Skinner, H.L. McCormick, N. Swart, W.A. Taylor, M.E. Myers, and James H. Watkins, stewards; C.R. Gordon, E. Westfall, Fred Jansen, E. Weld, J.H. Skinner, W.F. Haywood, James H. Watkins, and M.E. Myers, trustees. The pastors in order since 1866 have been Revs. Jas. B. Wood, R. Patterson, S.S. Ford, William Earl, John H. Coleman, and David T. Elliott, the present incumbent.

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VIII. - BURIALS AND BURIAL-PLACES.

The first death in town was David Sweetman, who died April 18, 1778, aged two years. He was the son of Thomas Sweetman, and was buried in the Sweetman family burial-ground. The first burial in this church-yard was that of Jesse Conde, a son of Jesse and Parthenia Conde, who died in 1778. A large butternut-tree is growing upon his grave. The first burial in the grave-yard south of Charlton, near Chondy's mills, was that of Ziba Granger, date unknown. The earliest burial in the West Charlton or Scotch Street cemetery was that of Esther Nelson Gilchrist, who died Dec. 8, 1778, in her twenty-eighth year.

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IX. - TOWN SOCIETIES.

The first temperance society in Charlton was organized in 1827 or 1828. Its pledge was against the use of spirituous liquors simply, and permitted the use of ale, beer, cider, etc., as comparatively uninjurious and harmless. Ladies were not permitted to join the society. It was composed of twenty members, all of whom are now dead except the first president, Mr. John Bunyan, who still survives. The society went down about the time the Washingtonian movement was at its height.

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X. - SCENES OF HISTORIC INTEREST.

The scenes of historical interest in Charlton are quite scarce. Indeed, aside from the Gonzalez tragedy but little of the rude shock of war ever touched its broad and fertile fields. The scene of that tragical occurrence is located in the southwestern part of the town, close to the line of Glenville. Here, in April, 1782, Joseph Gonzalez and his son Emanuel were killed by a marauding band of the St. Regis Indians. Another son, John, a youth of fifteen, was captured at the same time, together with a hired man, and carried to Canada, where he was forced into the British army. The rest of the family escaped with a horse and wagon and reached Crane's village, on the Mohawk, three miles distant, in safety. A company of scouts followed the Indians as far as the Fish house, where the trail became too indistinct to be followed and the pursuit was abandoned.

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XI. - INDUSTRIAL PURSUITS.

The principal and almost the sole occupation of the people of Charlton is agriculture.

The improving condition of the farms and the farm buildings attest both the natural fertility of the soil and the skill as well as the industry of those who till it.

A ready market for all the produce raised is found in Schenectady, at an easy distance from every farmer's home.

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XII. - MILITARY RECORD OF CHARLTON.

The soldiers of the Revolution who afterwards resided in the town were Dr. William Mead, who served as a surgeon. After the war he practiced his profession in Charlton till 1829, when he died. Capt. Henry Bowne, who died in Charlton in 1830, Peter Sylnave, Jeremiah Stone, Benjamin Marvin, and Hezekiah Watkins.

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The soldiers of the War of 1812 who went from Charlton were Capt. John Ferguson, who died in 1864, aged ninety-four years, Joseph Beach, James Richey, Lawrence Gardiner, Jared Smith; Delsa Benjamin, Ezra Seelye, ------ Swart, who died in service at Sacket's Harbor, Major Millard, Jonas Crane, David Low, a surgeon and paymaster, who was very expert in performing surgical operations. At Plattsburg he is reported to have said that he had "taken off more limbs than any other man in the same length of time." And Capt. David Gordon, who afterwards won fresh laurels in his profession, and became a general of militia. On the authority of Lieut.-Col. Taylor, of Half-Moon, we add also Thomas Kirby, Joseph Watkins, and Asher Cox.

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In the War of the Rebellion Charlton was well represented by some of her noblest sons. They went forth to fight in defense of their country's flag, and their record attests both their patriotism and their valor. Necessarily there must be many imperfections in a list compiled from the memories of the survivors, and after the lapse of twelve years, but we hope none mentioned will suffer injustice, or fail to receive the full meed of praise deserved by their acts while members of the army.

WAR OF 1861-65.

Joel S. Alexander, priv., Co. I, 115th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Aug. 8, 1862; killed at battle of Olustee, Fla., Feb. 20, 1864.

Oscar Alexander, priv., Co. I, 115th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Aug. 7, 1862; pro. to corp.; wounded at Olustee, Feb. 20, 1864; disch. with the regiment; living in Charlton.

William H. Alexander, priv, Co. I, 115th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Aug. 12, 1862; wounded in right hand at Fort Gilmer, Sept. 29, 1864; disch. with the regiment; died in Charlton since the war.

William G. Barhydt, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 25, 1861; trans. to Vet. Bat., 77th Regt.; disch. at close of the war; living in Schenectady.

Walter Bernard, priv., Co. F, 13th H. Art.; enl. Jan. 4, 1864; disch. at the close of the war; living in Albany.

John Barnes, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 14, 1861; died of disease at Richmond, Va., July 5, 1862.

Frank D. Barnum, 2d lieut., Co. I, 115th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Aug. 26, 1862; pro. to 1st lieut., and to capt., Co. I; detailed to serve on the staff of 2d Brig., 2d Div., of the 10th Army Corps; in June, 1865, was trans. to the 47th N.Y. Inf.; honorably disch., and living at Memphis, Tenn.

Albert Fisk Beach, capt., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 8, 1861; resigned Jan. 28, 1862; living at Ballston Spa.

Aaron Burger, priv., Co. F, 13th H. Art.; enl. Jan. 4, 1864.

Henry Bethman, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 20, 1861; disch. for disability, Feb. 17, 1863.

Patrick Bolin, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Oct. 1, 1861; trans. to Vet. Bat. 77th Regt.; disch. at close of the war; died in Charlton since the war.

Samuel C. Bradt, priv., Co. F, 13th H. Art.; enl. Jan. 8, 1864; died of disease in hospital on Staten Island, N.Y.

Lewis Broughton, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Oct. 7, 1861; trans. to 1st N.Y. Bat.; disch. with the battalion; living in Galway.

Thomas Broughton, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 14, 1861; disch. for disability, Oct. 24, 1862; living In Galway.

Nathan Hollister Brown, 1st lieut., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 14,1861; pro. capt. Jan. 30, 1862; resigned June 28, 1862; living in Detroit, Mich.

Edward Cain, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Oct. 1,1861; disch. with the regiment. Dec. 3, 1865; living in New York city.

Levi Callen, drafted; wounded in the Red River campaign, in Louisiana; disch. for disability; living in Iowa.

William H. Cath, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Oct. 1, 1861; trans. to Vet. Bat., 77th Regt.; disch. at close of the war; living in Glenville, Schenectady Co.

David J. Caw, orderly sergt., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 25, 1861; pro. to 2d lieut., 1st lieut., and capt. of Co. H; disch. with the regiment; living in New York city.

George Chambers, drafted; died in a rebel prison.

Isaac H. Conde, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Oct. 1, 1861; disch. for disability, June 24, 1862; living in Glenville, Schenectady Co.

John H. Cook, sergt., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 20, 1861; died of fever in hospital at Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 1, 1862.

James Cooney, priv., Ca. B, 25th N.Y. Cav.; enl. Feb. 20, 1864.

Abram Coonradt, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 20, 1861; lost in action.

Philip S. Coonradt, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 14, 1861; disch. with the regiment, Dec. 13, 1864.

James H. Corl, priv., Co. I, 115th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Aug. 11, 1862; killed by a shell in front of Petersburg, Va., July 14, 1864.

Gilbert C. Davidson, priv, Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 20,1861; died at White Oak Church, Va., Dec. 20, 1862.

Thomas De Lang, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Nov. 25, 1861.

James Drummond, priv, Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 28, 1861; disch. for disability, April 15, 1863; died in Charlton since the war.

James Drummond, Jr., priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. inf.; enl. Sept. 1861; trans. to Vet. Bat., 77th Regt.; disch. at close of the war; living in Schenectady.

James L. Dows, wagoner, Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 14, 1861; died of dysentery, Nov. 14, 1862, at Frederick City, Md.

William Fayle, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. 1861; died of disease while in the service.

James W. Finch, priv., Co. F, 13th H. Art.; enl. Jan. 15, 1864; disch. at close of the war; living in Ballston.

John L. Fort, priv, Co. I, 115th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Aug. 9, 1862; died in rebel prison at Salisbury, N.C., Oct. 12, 1864.

Oren Fowler, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 20, 1861; missing, - supposed to have died in rebel prison.

Lawrence Gardiner, priv.; enl. 1864; disch. at close of the war; died since in Charlton.

Garrett S. Grovenstein, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 30, 1861; disch. with the regiment, Dec. 13, 1864; living in Charlton.

Harvey B. Grovenstein, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 20, 1861; disch. for disability, Feb. 4, 1864; living in Michigan.

John Grovenstein, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Dec. 6, 1862; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps; disch. at close of the war; living in Churlton.

William C. Harmon, priv.; killed at battle of the Wilderness, May 12, 1864.

William H. Hart, sergt., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 14, 1861; disch. for disability, Oct. 29, 1862.

Henry W. Heaton, priv., Co. I, 115th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Aug. 7, 1862; appointed corp.; pro. to sergt., orderly sergt., and 2d lieut. of Co. I; wounded in shoulder by the explosion at Fort Fisher, Jan. 16, 1865; disch. at close of the war; living in Ballston Spa.

Francis Haynes, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Oct. 20, 1861.

George Houseman, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 20, 1861; trans. to Vet. Bat., 77th Regt.

Leroy Hoyt, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 24, 1861; lost in action.

Orey Hudson, priv., Co. F, 13th H. Art.; enl. Jan. 4, 1864; disch. at close of the war; living in Niagara Co.

Briggs N. Jenne, priv., Co. F, 13th H. Art.; enl. Jan. 15,1864; disch. at close of war; living in Ballston.

Oscar I. Jenne, priv., Co. F, 13th H. Art.; enl. Jan. 11, 1864; disch. at close of war; living in Ballston.

Edwd. O. Jennings, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Nov. 27, 1861; disch. with regiment; living in Schenectady.

Wm. H. Jones, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Nov. 5, 1861; trans. to Vet. Bat., 77th Regt.; taken prisoner in Jan. 1865; confined in Libby prison for three months; home on sick-leave when regiment was mustered out; living in Milton.

Chas. H. Jones, was drafted; served his time; honorably discharged; and living in Schenectady.

Michael Kildea, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Nov. 5, 1861.

Alfred H. Kingsley, corp., Co. H, 77th Inf.; enl. Sept. 18, 1861; disch. with the regiment; living in Charlton.

Joseph F. Kingsley, musician, Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Oct. 1, 186l; disch. with the regiment; died in Charlton since the war.

James Davidson Knight, priv., 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. 1861; discharged; living in Amsterdam.

Andrew Manning, priv., Co. H., 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Nov. 13, 1861; died of wounds, July 14, 1864.

John Martin, priv., Co. I, 115th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Aug. 5, 1862; disch. with the regiment; died in Illinois, in 1876.

David Millard, musician, enl. 1861; disch. at close of the war; died since, of disease contracted while in the service.

John C. Morehouse, priv., Co. F, 13th H. Art.; enl. Jan. 11, 1864; disch. at close of the war; living in the west.

Charles H. Murray, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Oct. 12, 1861; trans. to Invalid Corps; disch. at close of war; living in Reno Co., Kansas.

John W. Owen, musician, Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 14, 1861; disch. for disability, April 18, 1862; died in Charlton since the war.

Wm. H. Owen, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 8, 1861; trans. to 5th N.Y. Cav.; disch. at close of the war; lives in Saratoga County.

John C. Quinn, priv., Co. B, 25th N.Y. Cav.; enl. Feb. 20, 1864.

John Rector, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 30, 1861; died of disease, in hospital near Washington, D.C., July 5, 1862.

Henry C. Riley, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 19, 1861; disch. for disability, July 1, 1862; re-enl., priv., Co. F, 13th N.Y. H. Art.; disch. at close of war; living at Canajoharie.

James Riley, priv., Co. F, 13th H. Art.; enl. Jan. 4, 1864: disch. at close of war.

John D. Riley, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 20, 1861; disch. for disability, Aug. 28, 1862; living in Charlton.

Simon Riley, priv., 18th N.Y. Inf.; enl. 1861; disch. at expiration of term, in 1863; died in Charlton, of disease contracted while in the service.

Charles W. Rowley, corp., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 19, 1861; disch. for disability, July 11, 1862; living in Connecticut.

Chas. R. Severance, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl, Oct. 1, 1861.

----- Slocum, priv., 115th N.Y. Inf.

Henry A. Smith, sergt., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 14, 1861; pro. to orderly-sergt.; disch. for disability, July 27, 1862; living in Charlton.

Wm. H. Smith, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 20, 1861; disch for disability, in 1862; living in Charlton.

Louis W. Stanhope, priv., Co. B, 25th N.Y. Cav.; enl. Jan. 20, 1864.

Lorenzo Smith, priv., Co. I, 115th N.Y. Inf.; enl. 1862; disch. for disability, in 1864.

Thos. Stairs, priv., Co. I, 115th N.Y. Inf.; enl. 1862; pro. to corp.; disch. with the regiment; living near Fonda.

Geo. Tanner, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 20, 1861; {original text has "1851".} died of consumption, Jan. 21, 1862.

Frank Underhill, priv., 18th N.Y. Inf.; enl. May, 1861; died in Charlton of disease, while in the service.

James H. Underhill, priv., Co. F, 13th H. Art.; enl. Dec. 28, 1864; disch. at close of the war; living in Schenectady.

Frederick Valentine, priv., Co. F, 13th H. Art.; enl. Jan. 12, 1864; disch. at close of war; living in Baltimore, Md.

John Van Evers, priv., Co. G, 115th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Aug. 18, 1862.

Peter Wager, priv., Co. F, 13th H. Art.; enl. Jan. 4, 1864.

John W. Ward, priv., Co. H, 115th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Aug. 8, 1862.

Manly Warren, wagoner, Co. F, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 24, 1861; disch. with regiment; died in Charlton since the war.

Bornt Wemple, priv., Co. G, 115th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Aug. 9, 1862; disch. with the regiment; living in West Charlton.

George C. Wilder, musician, Co. I, 115th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Aug. 16, 1862; died of diphtheria, at Harper's Ferry, Va., Sept. 1, 1862.

Wm. E. Wilder, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Sept. 20, 1861; died of disease, in hospital near Washington, D.C., Sept. 21, 1862.

James K. Wilson, priv., Co. H, 77th N.Y. Inf.; enl. Oct. 7, 1861; disch. for disability, Aug. 1, 1862.

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