THE SARATOGA CAMPAIGN OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR
TABLES OF ORGANIZATION

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FOREWORD

       Heritage Hunters is proud to have this national park as part of our rich historical tradition in Saratoga County. The park commemorates the two battles fought there during the Revolutionary War. Of these two battles of Saratoga, known as the Battles of Freeman's Farm, and Bemis Heights or Stillwater, the second battle was the first great victory of the Americans and was deemed by many historians to be the turning point of the Revolutionary War.

       This web page contains the tables of organization for both sides and was developed by Eric Schnitzer, Ranger/Historian at the Saratoga National Park. Heritage Hunters is grateful for his contribution. The tables include footnotes in the form of links. To return from a footnote, click on the "back" at the top left of the screen.

       Heritage Hunters has another web page which contains an alphabetic listing of participants located at: American Participants

       From that data base, Frank Goodway of Heritage Hunters, has developed a table of organization by regiment or other unit, and where appropriate, these are linked to the following Tables of Organization.

       As with any such project, please consider this a "work in progress." We would appreciate learning of any errors or omissions and would be pleased to correct or augment any of these records with new valid information which you may send to Lynn Calvin.

Frank Goodway
Original Publication
February 2009
Last Updated July 2009

General Gates 9/17 Table of Organization

General Gates 10/7 Table of Organization

General Gates Addendum to Table of Organization

 

Organization of the Army From Canada Commanded by
Lieutenant-General John Burgoyne
September 19 to October 7, 1777
By Eric Schnitzer



Lieutenant-General John Burgoyne's headquarters staff
Major-General William Phillips' general staff   1

The Advanced Corps (also called "Fraser's Corps")

commanded by Brigadier-General Simon Fraser

British light infantry battalion, Major Alexander Lindsay, 6th Earl of Balcarres  2
British grenadier battalion, Major John Dyke Acland  3
24th Regiment of Foot, Major William Agnew
3d Battalion, 7th Company Royal Regiment of Artillery, augmented by British infantrymen of the Advanced Corps,
consisting of four 6-pounders, four 3-pounders,and two 5½-inch "royal" howitzers, Captain Ellis Walker

"Major Campbell's department" (also called the "Indian Department")

commanded by Major John Campbell

staff  4
Company of British marksmen (Fraser's Rangers), Captain Alexander Fraser  5
Company of Québec militia, Captain René Amable Boucher de Boucherville
Company of Montréal militia, Captain David Monin  6
Fort Hunter Mohawk warriors and families, Chief John Deserontyon  7
Iroquoian and Algonquian Seven Nations of Canada warriors  8

The Right Wing of the Army (also called the "British line")

commanded by Brigadier-General James Hamilton

9th Regiment of Foot, Lieutenant-Colonel John Hill
21st Regiment of Foot, or Royal North British Fuzileers, Major George Forster
62d Regiment of Foot, Lieutenant-Colonel John Anstruther
20th Regiment of Foot, Lieutenant-Colonel John Lind
Royal Regiment of Artillery brigade of four 6-pounders, Captain Thomas Jones  9

The Left Wing of the Army (also called "von Riedesel's divison")

commanded by Major General Friedrich Adolph, Baron von Riedesel

Baron von Riedesel's general staff
Brunswick Dragoon Regiment Prinz Ludwig, Captain Adolf von Schlagenteuffel  10
Princely Hessen-Hanau Artillery Corps, consisting of four 6-pounders, Captain Georg Päusch

1st German Brigade

commanded by Brigadier Johann Friedrich Specht

Brunswick Musketeer Regiment von Riedesel, Lieut. Colonel Ernst Ludwig Wilhelm von Speth
Brunswick Musketeer Regiment Specht, Major Carl Friedrich von Ehrenkrook
Brunswick Musketeer Regiment von Rhetz, Major Balthasar Bogislaus von Lucke

2nd German Brigade

commanded by Brigadier Wilhelm Rudolph von Gall

Hessen-Hanau Musketeer Regiment Erbprinz, Colonel and Brigadier Wilhelm Rudolph von Gall

The Reserve Corps (also called "Breymann's Corps")

commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Heinrich Christoph Breymann
Brunswick Grenadier Battalion, Captain Albrecht Daniel von Löhneisen  11
Brunswick Light Infantry Battalion von Bärner, Captain Maximillian Christian Schottelius  12
Princely Hessen-Hanau Artillery Corps detachment of two 6-pounders, Bombardier Conrad Wall

The Brigade of the Park of Artillery

commanded by Captain John Carter

1st Battalion, 8th Company Royal Regiment of Artillery, Captain and Major Griffith Williams  13
1st Battalion, 5th Company Royal Regiment of Artillery, Captain John Carter
Royal Irish Regiment of Artillery detachment  14
Additional Company of the 33d Regiment of Foot, Lieutenant George Anson Nutt  15

Right Divison

commanded by 2d Lieutenant Samuel Rimington
two 12-pounders and two 6-pounders

Center Divison

commanded by Captain-Lieutenant Thomas Blomefield
two 24-pounders, two 8-inch howitzers, and two 5½-inch "royal" howitzers

Left Divison

commanded by Captain-Lieutenant Thomas Hosmer
two 12-pounders and two 6-pounders

Loyalist Infantry (often serving with the Advanced Corps)

The King's Loyal Americans (Jessup's Rangers), Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Ebenezer Jessup  16
The Queen's Loyal Rangers (Peters' Corps), Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant John Peters  17
The Loyal Volunteers, Captain Samuel MacKay
"Voluntiers under the Command of Daniel McAlpin," Captain Daniel McAlpin
“Captain Samuel Adams’s Company Raised…for the Purpose of Rangers,” Captain Samuel Adams

Attached to the Army

47th Regiment of Foot, Lieutenant-Colonel Nicholas Sutherland  18
1st Battalion, Royal Highland Emigrants detachment, Captain-Lieutenant George Lawes  19
Royal Navy detachment, Midshipman Edward Pellew  20
Corps of Engineers, Lieutenant and Sub-Engineer William Twiss
commissary departments, Commissary-General Mr. Jonathan Clarke
Quartermaster Department, Deputy Quartermaster-General Captain John Money
His Majesty’s Hospital, Acting Physician Vincent Wood
artificers
wagon-men, batteaux-men
camp followers  21
ladies, children, and servants  22



1. William Phillips had an unusual role in the Army from Canada. By rank and seniority he was second-in-command, and was also commander of the Department of the Corps of Engineers as well as commander of all artillery with the army. However, because Phillips was an officer of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, he was legally bound from commanding British infantry or cavalry regiments. While contemporary organizational charts, proposing the organization of the Army from Canada, do show Philips as overall commander of the 1st British Brigade (originally, the 9th, 21st, and 47th Regiments) and 2nd British Brigade (originally, the 20th, 53d, and 62d Regiments), the proposal was based upon the precedent set in 1776, when Phillips was assigned to command British infantry. Phillips' commander, General Guy Carleton, was admonished for this by the King, who specifically demanded that the practice "must not in future be considered as a precedent." Never the less, Phillips did serve as second-in-command of the Army from Canada, which necessitated the command of British infantry regiments on the field "in some cases."

2. Consisting of the light infantry companies of the 9th, 20th, 21st, 24th, 29th, 31st, 34th, 47th, 53d, and 62d Regiments of Foot.

3. Consisting of the grenadier companies of the 9th, 20th, 21st, 24th, 29th, 31st, 34th, 47th, 53d, and 62d Regiments of Foot.

4. The staff included Major John Campbell (who was Superintendent of the Canada Indian Department), three lieutenants, one chaplain, "two volunteers," and seven servants.

5. This unit was also known as the "company of marksmen" under Captain Fraser of the 34th Regiment of Foot. After it was destroyed during the 1st Battle of Bennington on 16 August, the company was rebuilt on 2 September with 16 men and one NCO from each British Regiment.

6. Killed on 19 September and replaced by Lieutenant Baptiste Beaubien.

7. Following the Battle of Oriskany, vengeful American militia and their Oneida warrior allies moved to attack the Mohawk's lower castle settlement at Fort Hunter, NY. Aware of the approaching force, most families opted to flee and join Burgoyne's army, which they reached on September 4. They numbered about 150 men, women, and children. Most eventually settled near Lachine, Canada.

8. Following the battles near Bennington on 16 August, "almost all the Savages [Indians] have gone home." By the time of the Battles of Saratoga, less than 80 warriors from campaign participating nations remained. The Seven Nations of Canada was composed of seven Catholic mission communities located along the St. Lawrence River: Caughnawaga (primarily Mohawk), Lake of the Two Mountains (primarily Mohawk, Nipissing, and Algonquin), St. François (Sokoki, Penacook, and Algonquin), Bécancour (Eastern Abenaki), Oswegatchie (primarily Onondagas, with Oneidas, and Cayugas), Lorette (Huron), and Saint Regis (resettled Caughnawaga Mohawk).

9. This company-sized brigade was commanded by Captain Thomas Jones (4th Battalion, 6th Company). While his own artillery company served with Sir William Howe's main army, Jones himself was in Britain and subsequently ordered to lead a detachment of 70 artillery drafts to Canada. Jones' brigade was composed of draftees from various artillery companies, including a detachment of an officer and Royal Artillerymen from Captain William Borthwick's company (3d Battalion, 8th Company), which had been left behind at Ticonderoga. Jones was mortally wounded on 19 September and the replaced as commander by 2d Lieutenant James Hadden.

10. What remained of this regiment after most had been lost at Bennington on August 16 was one small squadron that finally received horses, with the men "shabbily mounted" on them. This squadron performed scout and guard duty.

11. This unit consisted of the grenadier companies from the Brunswick Regiments von Rhetz, Specht, von Riedesel, and Prinz Friedrich.

12. This unit, also known as the "Free Battalion von Bärner," consisted of four companies of Brunswick "chasseurs" (light infantrymen) and one company of Brunswick jägers ("hunters"). While the battalion's commander, Major Ferdinand Albrecht von Bärner, was present with Burgoyne's army, he had been so "gravely" wounded in the 2d Battle of Bennington that he could not command it. The captain of the jäger company therefore "served as commander."

13. Williams, who was captured on October 7 during the Second Battle of Saratoga, was commander of all British artillery with Burgoyne's army. He held the dual rank of Captain in the Royal Regiment of Artillery and Major in the Army.

14. Seventy mattrosses of the Royal Irish Regiment of Artillery augmented the Royal Regiment of Artillery companies with the army. Having left Ireland in April of 1777 under the command of Captain Thomas Jones (and having none of their own officers with them), these men were "incorporated into the British" Royal Artillery, an altogether separate organization. The 70 drafts were then dispersed between the different companies and brigades of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, some remaining in Canada. Although these men were no longer in the Royal Irish Regiment of Artillery, they wore the uniforms of that corps, as their new ones had not arrived in time for the campaign.

15. This unit consisted of about 150 "additionals, recruits for the southern army." This detachment was made up of the Additional company of the 33d Regiment of Foot, but some were meant for "the other regiments" with the southern army as well—recruits for the 15th, 27th, 35th, 45th, and 54th Regiments of Foot. They were all uniformed infantrymen, but were "attached to the service of the artillery" during the campaign.

16. Recruited from Charlotte County, N.Y. (now roughly Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Warren Counties, upper Washington County, and about 1/3 of upper Vermont).

17. Recruited from Albany County, N.Y. (now roughly Albany, Columbia, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Schenectady, Schoharie Counties, much of Greene and Washington Counties, and Bennington County, Vermont).

18. The 47th Regiment sent two of its eight battalion companies to Fort George under the command of Captain Thomas Aubrey. They then moved to Diamond Island on Lake George for safety because of an expected American attack. The six companies that remained with Burgoyne were delegated to protect the batteaux.

19. This was a detachment of The Royal Highland Emigrants (designated the 84th Regiment of Foot in 1779), made up of six officers and men, attached to the artificers as engineers.

20. The detachment of the Royal Navy numbered about 150 officers and men, and were drafted from sailing vessels like the Ships Isis and Blonde. While the duties of the senior Royal Naval officer present with Burgoyne's army, Lieutenant John Schank, were to oversee overall management of bateaux transport and floating bridge construction, Pellew (later, Lord Exmouth) commanded the Royal Navy detachment directly. After 19 September all "the boatmen or mariners and sailors with the army who were serving on the bateaux or with the supply train had to drill daily for several hours so that they could render actual military service if needs be and protect" the army's vital food and supply train.

21. 215 British and 82 German women camp followers were present at the surrender as well as an undetermined number of children and non-combatant loyalist refugees. Also, sutlers (salesmen) were present with the army.

22. One German lady (Baroness von Riedesel) and five British ladies (Harriet Acland, Mary Honour Harnage, Anne Reynell, Mrs. Fitzgerald, and "the wife of a commissary [officer]"), as well as their servants and many of their children, traveled with the army.























Organization of the Army of the United States
under the Command of Major General Horatio Gates
at Bemis Heights 19 September 1777
By Eric Schnitzer



Major General Gates' headquarters staff  1

The Left Wing of the Army (also called "Arnold's Division")
commanded by Major General Benedict Arnold

Benedict Arnold's general staff

Morgan's Corps

commanded by Colonel Daniel Morgan  More Info

The Rifle Regiment (Corps of Rifle men), Lieutenant Colonel Richard Butler
The Corps of Light Infantry, Major Henry Dearborn  More Info

Poor's Brigade

commanded by Brigadier General Enoch Poor

1st New Hampshire Regiment, Colonel Joseph Cilley  More Info
2d New Hampshire Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Winborn Adams  More Info
3d New Hampshire Regiment, Colonel Alexander Scammell  More Info
2d New York Regiment, Colonel Philip Van Cortlandt  More Info
4th New York Regiment, Colonel Henry Beekman Livingston  More Info
Battalion of Connecticut militia, Colonel Thaddeus Cook   More Info
Battalion of Connecticut militia, Colonel Jonathan Latimer  More Info

Learned's Brigade

commanded by Brigadier General Ebenezer Learned

Colonel John Bailey's [later 2d] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel John Bailey More Info
Colonel Michael Jackson's [later 8th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel John Brooks  More Info
Colonel James Wesson's [later 9th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel James Wesson
Battalion of Forces in the Service of the United States of America [former 1st Canadian Regiment], Colonel James Livingston  More Info

The Right Wing of the Army

commanded by Major General Horatio Gates

Paterson's Brigade

commanded by Brigadier General John Paterson

Colonel Thomas Marshall's [later 10th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Thomas Marshall
Colonel Ebenezer Francis' [later 11th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Benjamin Tupper
Colonel Samuel Brewer's [later 12th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Samuel Brewer
Colonel Gamaliel Bradford's [later 14th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Gamaliel Bradford

Nixon's Brigade

commanded by Brigadier General John Nixon

Colonel John Greaton's [later 3d] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel John Greaton  More Info
Colonel Rufus Putnam's [later 5th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Rufus Putnam
Colonel Thomas Nixon's [later 6th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Thomas Nixon
Colonel Ichabod Alden's [later 7th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel William Stacey   More Info

Glover's Brigade

commanded by Brigadier General John Glover

Colonel Joseph Vose's [later 1st] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Joseph Vose  More Info
Colonel William Shepard's [later 4th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel William Shepard  More Info
Colonel Edward Wigglesworth's [later 13th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Major John Porter
Colonel Timothy Bigelow's [later 15th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Major David Bradish
Battalion of Albany County, New York militia ("the First Regiment"), Colonel Abraham Wemple
Battalion of Albany County, New York militia ("the Second Regiment"), Colonel William Whiting  2
Battalion of Dutchess and Ulster County, New York militia, Colonel Morris Graham  3   More Info

 

Cavalry

2nd Troop, 2nd Continental Dragoons, Captain Jean Louis de Vernejoux
2nd Regiment of Connecticut Light Horse, Major Elijah Hyde

Artillery

commanded by Major Ebenezer Stevens

Stevens' Provisional Artillery Battalion, consisting of one 9-pounder, four 6-pounders, fifteen 4-pounders, and two 3-pounders, Major Ebenezer Stevens   More Info

Attached to the Army

Department of Engineers, Colonel Jeduthan Baldwin More Info
Quartermaster Department, Colonel Morgan Lewis
Hospital Department, Doctor Jonathan Potts
commissary departments
artificers
wagon-men, batteaux-men
camp followers


1. A general's staff includes both personal and command support personnel needed to help the general manage the command under his direction. Such a staff may include, but is not limited to, aids-de-camp, clerks, adjutants, personal retainers, and a body guard.

2. Governor George Clinton wrote to General Abraham Ten Broeck on August 1 about the necessity of calling out the militia to stop Burgoyne's advance. Clinton ordered two battalions to be formed, commanded by Colonel Abraham Wemple (of the 2d Albany County militia) and Colonel William Whiting (of the 17th Albany County militia). These two battalions were called "the First Regiment" and "the Second Regiment" respectively. They were made up of draftees from Albany County militia regiments, and were to serve as such until November 15th.

3. Governor George Clinton also wrote to Colonel Morris Graham on August 1 about the necessity of calling out the militia to stop Burgoyne's advance. Draftees from Colonel Frear's (4th Regiment), Colonel Humfrey's (5th Regiment) Colonel Sutherland's, and Graham's 6th Regiment of Dutchess County, as well as Colonel Snyder's (1st Regiment), and Colonel Pawling's (3rd Regiment) from Ulster County, N.Y. were to form a battalion to be put "under the Command of his Hnor., Major General Schuyler." The battalion was to be commanded by Colonel Graham, and the men "drafted by ballot or other equitable manner." They were ordered to serve until November 1st.

























Organization of the Army of the United States
under the Command of Major General Horatio Gates
at Bemis Heights 7 October 1777
By Eric Schnitzer

Major General Horatio Gates' headquarters staff

Morgan's Corps

commanded by Colonel Daniel Morgan  1   More Info
The Rifle Regiment (Corps of Rifle men), Lieutenant Colonel Richard Butler 
2
The Corps of Light Infantry, Major Henry Dearborn 
3   More Info

The Left Wing of the Army (also called "Arnold's Division")

Benedict Arnold's general staff

Poor's Brigade

commanded by Brigadier General Enoch Poor

1st New Hampshire Regiment, Colonel Joseph Cilley 
More Info
2d New Hampshire Regiment, Captain John Drew 
5   More Info
3d New Hampshire Regiment, Colonel Alexander Scammell 
More Info
2d New York Regiment, Colonel Philip Van Cortlandt 
More Info
4th New York Regiment, Colonel Henry Beekman Livingston 
More Info
Battalion of Connecticut militia, Colonel Thaddeus Cook   
More Info
Battalion of Connecticut militia, Colonel Jonathan Latimer
More Info

Learned's Brigade

commanded by Brigadier General Ebenezer Learned

Colonel John Bailey's [later 2d] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel John Bailey 
More Info
Colonel Michael Jackson's [later 8th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Lieutenant Colonel John Brooks 
More Info
Colonel James Wesson's [later 9th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel James Wesson
Battalion of Forces in the Service of the United States of America [former 1st Canadian Regiment], Colonel James Livingston 
More Info
Battalion of New Hampshire militia, Colonel Stephen Evans 
6   More Info
Battalion of New Hampshire militia, Colonel Abraham Drake 
6   More Info

Schuyler's Brigade (also called "Ten Broeck's Brigade")

commanded by Brigadier General Abraham Ten Broeck

Battalions of Albany County, New York militia, Brigadier General Abraham Ten Broeck 
7   More Info

The Right Wing of the Army (also called "Lincoln's Division")

commanded by Major General Benjamin Lincoln  8

Benjamin Lincoln's general staff

Paterson's Brigade

commanded by Brigadier General John Paterson

Colonel Thomas Marshall's [later 10th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Thomas Marshall
Colonel Ebenezer Francis' [later 11th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Benjamin Tupper
Colonel Samuel Brewer's [later 12th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Samuel Brewer
Colonel Gamaliel Bradford's [later 14th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Gamaliel Bradford
Battalion of south Berkshire County, Massachusetts militia, Colonel John Ashley, Jr. 
9   More Info
Battalion of York County, Massachusetts militia, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Storer 
9

Nixon's Brigade

commanded by Brigadier General John Nixon

Colonel John Greaton's [later 3d] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel John Greaton 
More Info
Colonel Rufus Putnam's [later 5th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Rufus Putnam
Colonel Thomas Nixon's [later 6th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Thomas Nixon
Colonel Ichabod Alden's [later 7th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Ichabod Alden  
More Info
Battalion of Hampshire County, Massachusetts militia, Colonel Ezra May 
10

Glover's Brigade

commanded by Brigadier General John Glover

Colonel Joseph Vose's [later 1st] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Joseph Vose 
More Info
Colonel William Shepard's [later 4th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel William Shepard 
More Info
Colonel Edward Wigglesworth's [later 13th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Major John Porter
Colonel Timothy Bigelow's [later 15th] Massachusetts Bay Regiment, Colonel Timothy Bigelow
Battalion of Albany County, New York militia ("the First Regiment"), Colonel Abraham Wemple
Battalion of Albany County, New York militia ("the Second Regiment"), Colonel William Whiting
Battalion of Dutchess and Ulster County, New York militia, Colonel Morris Graham 
More Info

Warner's Brigade

commanded by Brigadier General Jonathan Warner  11

Battalion of middle Berkshire County, Massachusetts militia, Colonel John Brown 
More Info
Battalion of Middlesex County, Massachusetts militia, Colonel Samuel Bullard 
More Info
Battalion of Suffolk County, Massachusetts militia, Colonel Benjamin Gill 
More Info
Battalion of Hampshire County, Massachusetts militia, Colonel Benjamin Woodbridge 
More Info
Battalion of Essex County, Massachusetts militia, Colonel Samuel Johnson 
More Info

Wolcott's Brigade

commanded by Brigadier General Oliver Wolcott

Battalion of Connecticut militia, Brigadier General Oliver Wolcott 
12

Cavalry

2d Troop, 2d Continental Light Dragoons, Captain Jean Louis de Vernejoux  13
2d Regiment of Connecticut Light Horse, Major Elijah Hyde

The Corps of Artillery

commanded by Major Ebenezer Stevens  14

Steven's Provisional Artillery Battalion, consisting of one 9-pounder, four 6-pounders, fifteen 4-pounders, and two 3-pounders, Major Ebenezer Stevens 
More Info

Attached to the Army

Iroquoian Oneida and Tuscarora warriors, Hon Yerry Tewahangarahken (Doxtater), Louis Atayataronghta, and Peter Bread (Kaunaudauloonh)  15
Algonquian Mohican (Stockbridge) warriors 
16
Department of Engineers, Colonel Jeduthan Baldwin  
More Info
Quartermaster Department, Colonel Morgan Lewis
Hospital Department, Doctor Jonathan Potts
commissary departments
artificers
wagon-men, batteaux-men
camp followers


1 Morgan's Corps, originally assigned to Arnold's division of the army, was re-assigned on September 22 and placed "not…in any Brigade or Division of this Army." Morgan, the commander of the corps, also personally commanded the Rifle Regiment.

2 This battalion joined the Northern Department on September 3. It was a provisional unit sent by Washington because "The people in the Northern Army seem so intimidated by the Indians…[the Corps of Rifle Men] will fight them in their own way." The officers and men were drafted from the 1st New Jersey Regiment, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 11th Virginia Regiments, as well as the 5th, 8th, and 12th Pennsylvania Battalions (and perhaps others).

3 Dearborn was appointed to command the near 300-man light infantry battalion, divided into five companies, which was formed by draftees from "the Several Regements in the Northern Army," on September 11, 1777. Fifteen men, one corporal, one serjeant, and "one officer" were drafted from each of all Continental infantry regiments with the army (the Rifle Regiment excepted). By October 2, however, "The Quotas of Colo Livingstons [4th New York] and [Van] Courtlands [2d New York] regiments joined & afterwards returned to their regiments."

4 With the arrival of Major General Benjamin Lincoln, Arnold was superceded as second-in-command of the army. Although Gates and Arnold had a falling out since September 19, Arnold was never removed or officially relieved of his command of the left wing of the army. Although given permission to leave, Arnold decided to stay even though he received "repeated ill Treatment" and felt he was "never consulted; or acquainted with one occurrence in the army" after the Battle of Freeman's Farm. While technically in command of this division, he was not allowed to actively command it.

5 With the capture of the regiment's colonel, Nathan Hale, on 7 July, the death of Lieutenant Colonel Winborn Adams on 19 September, and the severe wounding and furlough of the regiment's major, Benjamin Titcomb, the command of this regiment fell to one of its eight captains. However, because Captains Norris, Robinson, and Carr were also captured on 7 July, Captain Blodget was severely wounded and on furlough, and Captain Bell was severely wounded on 19 September (and died soon thereafter), the regiment's most senior officer and commander of the 5th company, Captain Drew, commanded the regiment.

6 These regiments arrived on October 7.

7 This brigade was composed of draftees from 16 of the 17 regiments of Albany County, New York militia, who were called to service on September 18. They would "trickle in," but most would be present by October 4. The Governor did not call for draftees from Colonel Peter Vroman's 15th Albany County Militia Regiment, as it had duties in the Schoharie Valley. This brigade numbered about 1,300 officers and men.

8 Lincoln, who was second-in-command of the Northern Department, assumed command of the right wing of the army on September 25.

9 These regiments were assigned to Paterson's Brigade on October 3.

10 This battalion arrived on October 4, "remained in camp" on October 7, and "went home" October 14.

11 This brigade primarily arrived on September 24. Only one of the named colonels was actually present, with the other four battalions commanded by lieutenant colonels or majors.

12 This single battalion, officered by a brigadier general, two colonels, two lieutenant colonels, two majors, and 34 company-level officers, had about 250 enlisted men. This battalion was present by October 4.

13 [1] This was a detachment of one troop of "very nicely uniformed light dragoons" originally commanded by a French officer, Captain Jean Louis de Vernejoux, who "ran away" on October 15. He was dismissed by Gates on the 20th, and replaced by Lieutenant Thomas Young Seymour.

14 Ebenezer Stevens, commander of the Corps of Artillery, was brevetted to the rank of major in the Continental Army in May, and his artillery corps was considered a detachment of the Continental artillery. This four company battalion, one company of which was artificers, was also composed of two separate detachments from Colonel John Crane’s 3d Regiment of Continental Artillery; one commanded by Captain Lieutenant James Furnival and the other by Lieutenant James Hall. Steven’s corps became part of the 3d Continental Artillery Regiment in 1778.

15 Philip Schuyler wrote to Gates from Albany on September 15 that "some of the Oenidas, Tuscarroras and Onondagoes have arrived," and although they wished to return promptly to Fort Schuyler (Fort Stanwix), Schuyler would try to persuade some of them to join Gates. Along with Reverend Samuel Kirkland, missionary to the Oneida Nation, about 110 "Onyda Indians" joined the army on the 20th. Colonel Jeduthan Baldwin wrote on September 26 that "30 indians went of this day." and on the 27th that "the greatest part of the Indians went of home." These "friendly Indians when in Battle" were "distinguished by a red wollen Cap."

16 These were Christianized Mohican (or Mahican) Indians from Stockbridge, Massachusetts. They served as soldiers in the Massachusetts Continental line.




















Organization of the Army of the United States
under the Command of Major General Horatio Gates

Addendum

Some troops may have been mobilized as a result of the first battle but arrived too late for the second battle. However, they were there prior to Burgoyne's surrender, were prepared to do battle and are therefore included in this addendum.

Whipple's Brigade

commanded by Brigadier General William Whipple

Col. Daniel Moore, New Hampshire Militia Regiment  More Info

Col. Jonathan Chase, New Hampshire Militia Regiment  More Info

Col. Joseph Welch, New Hampshire Militia Regiment  More Info

Col. Benjamin Bellows, New Hampshire Militia Regiment  More Info

Col. Jonathan Moulton, New Hampshire Militia Regiment  More Info


Some regiments sent detachments and, at this point, it is unkown to which regiment they were attached.

Col. Thomas Stickney, New Hampshire Militia Regiment, commanded by Lieut. Col. Henry Cerrish  More Info

Col. Samuel Denny, Worcester Co. MA militia regt., detachment commanded by 2nd Major Asa Baldwin  More Info


Col. James Converse, Worcester Co. MA militia regt., company detachment commanded by Capt. Asa Danforth  More Info


Col. James Converse, Worcester Co. MA militia regt., company detachment commanded by Capt. Joseph Cutler  More Info

Col. Job Cushing, 6th Worcester Co. MA militia regt., May have been part of Brig. Gen. Warner's brigade  More Info